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September 2011 Issue

25 Years Ago
1986.
The first privately developed satellite positioning system, Analytical Technology Laboratories Inc.'s Starfix, was used for offshore oil exploration. It was also the first satellite of its kind to operate in the four-gigahertz frequency band. ... A U.S. congressional report stated that burning hazardous waste in incinerators on ocean-going vessels could be an "attractive, though not essential, interim option for managing certain liquid wastes," especially highly chlorinated materials. ... Number 3 completed the longest nonstop trip by a U.S. air-cushion assault landing craft, traveling from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Panama City, Florida.

15 Years Ago
1996.
The U.S. began implementing a voluntary international code for marine fisheries that emphasized responsibility in fisheries management, aquaculture development, integrating fisheries into coastal area management and post-harvest practices. ... International Maritime Organization delegates voted against a British Admirality proposal to legalize the use of raster-scanned charts as substitutes for paper charts. Opponents said the charts did not comply with electronic chart display standards. ... Scientists from the Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the genome of an ancient microbe, methanococcus jannaschii, found in a volcanic vent in the Pacific.

10 Years Ago
2001.
The Natural Resources Defense Council reported that pollution caused U.S. beach closures nearly twice as often in 2000 compared to 1999. Elevated bacteria counts accounted for 85 percent of the 11,270 beach closings. ... The U.S. transferred a satellite ground station used to collect high-resolution digital imagery and data from NOAA's satellites to Costa Rica. The $1 billion project aimed to improve weather forecasting in Central America. ... Transocean Sedco Forex drilled to a water depth of 9,687 feet in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, setting a new world record as it passed the previous mark of 9,157 feet.



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